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A history of past human populations read from bones

Informacje ogólne

Kod przedmiotu: 1201-OG-EN-HPHPRB
Kod Erasmus / ISCED: (brak danych) / (0222) Historia i archeologia Kod ISCED - Międzynarodowa Standardowa Klasyfikacja Kształcenia (International Standard Classification of Education) została opracowana przez UNESCO.
Nazwa przedmiotu: A history of past human populations read from bones
Jednostka: Instytut Archeologii
Grupy: Przedmioty ogólnouniwersyteckie
Punkty ECTS i inne: 4.00 Podstawowe informacje o zasadach przyporządkowania punktów ECTS:
  • roczny wymiar godzinowy nakładu pracy studenta konieczny do osiągnięcia zakładanych efektów uczenia się dla danego etapu studiów wynosi 1500-1800 h, co odpowiada 60 ECTS;
  • tygodniowy wymiar godzinowy nakładu pracy studenta wynosi 45 h;
  • 1 punkt ECTS odpowiada 25-30 godzinom pracy studenta potrzebnej do osiągnięcia zakładanych efektów uczenia się;
  • tygodniowy nakład pracy studenta konieczny do osiągnięcia zakładanych efektów uczenia się pozwala uzyskać 1,5 ECTS;
  • nakład pracy potrzebny do zaliczenia przedmiotu, któremu przypisano 3 ECTS, stanowi 10% semestralnego obciążenia studenta.
Język prowadzenia: angielski
Wymagania wstępne:

Basic knowledge about the past culture and the world of humans (past anthropocene).

Całkowity nakład pracy studenta:

Contact hours with teacher:

– participation in laboratory – 30 hrs.

Self-study hours:

– reading literature – 25 hrs;

– preparation for presentation – 10 hrs;

– essay – 25 hrs;

– credit preparation – 20 hrs.

Altogether: 110 hrs (4 ECTS)

Efekty uczenia się - wiedza:


– W1: knows basic anthropological – archaeosteological, archaeological and historical records of past human populations;

– W2: knows key changes in relationship between people and environment in the past;

– W3: know basic factors of relationship of man and cultural and natural environments;

– W4: know significance influences of ecological and cultural factors in past populations and human life.

Efekty uczenia się - umiejętności:


– U1: knows how to interpret osteoarcheological and bioarchaeological data in anthropological and archaeological context;

– U2: knows how to evaluate relationship between man and environment and culture;

– U3: assesses human impacts on the natural environment.

Efekty uczenia się - kompetencje społeczne:


– K1: is aware an influence of world of human and animals in the culture heritage;

– K2: recognizes the need for interdisciplinary research in studies on human populations in the past time – environment relationship.

Metody dydaktyczne:

Expository teaching methods:

– discussion seminar assisted with multimedia presentations; introduction to each topic by a short lecture;

– presentations of osteological material and introduction to basic analysis of bones and teeth and results interpretation on the light of different kind of questions about the past time, past life and past environment and human.

Skrócony opis:

Bioarchaeology and anthropology (include osteology – science of bones) are a disciplines on the borderline of the natural sciences as biology and the humanities as archaeology and history. It deals with the history of the relationship between man and natural and cultural environment. In most base for research are bone remains (human and animals) discovered during archaeological excavations on different kind of sites. Analysis of bones (‘reading’ from bones) is one of the most important process during reconstruction of a history of man and past human populations.

Pełny opis:

Human and animal skeletal system include many specific kind of bones. Include teeth also. Morphology of bones and bone composition depend on many factors as: genes and hormonal influences, function during life, biomechanical activities and stress, diet and many others. Bones are present very often in places inhabited in the past by man (e.g. caves, camps, villages, wooden strongholds, castles, towns) or used by him for ritual purposes (cemeteries and temples). In this light it is one of the most ‘popular’ and important material from archaeological sites. The lesson is addressed to students interested in the reconstruction history of history of man and environment from prehistoric to post-medieval times. It will reveal for them fascinating discoveries of human and animal remains deposited underground at thousands and hundreds of years ago. During lessons will be presented the most important aspects related to man and natural environment history and culture. Also such as: nature of bones and whole skeleton, evolution of man, biological and cultural adaptation of past populations, domestication and urbanization process, history of human diet, disease, biological condition and economical status of different kind of groups. Also is possible to read of the history of individual life as ‘osteobiography’. In modern times knowledge is mainly based on historical records and relatively short time spread about 6 millennium BP. In this perspective and bioarchaeology and anthropology undoubtedly creates an opportunity to learn of the issue since prehistoric times. With the knowledge, in most of anthropology, anatomy and zoology and osteology (science of bones), bone remains are a source of rich information about past people and the species living in nature. Archaeological methods enable the discovery and dating of bone deposits and recognize their cultural context. As a result, bioarchaeology through combination of biological and archaeological facts paint a unique vision of the oldest history of man and his way of life. After years of research, conducted around The World, bioarchaeology and anthropology has been made many important discoveries. Among them are the main stages of the evolution of our species during the Pleistocene and other process in Holocene, development of hunting and fishing strategies, development of agriculture, domestication of man and animals and last: urbanisation and technological revolution. As well past food production and human diet, man growth and development – human ontogeny, scular trends, migration, demographic structure and many others. All these issues will be discussed and presented in class in the context of Poland, Europe and other part of The World.


Buzon R. M., Eng T. J., Lambert M. P., Walker L. P., Bioarchaeological Methods, [in:] Handbook of Archaeological Methods, vol. 2, 2005, ed. H. Maschner, Ch. Chippindale, Altamira Press, pp. 871–918.

France L. D., Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification. A Color Atlas, CRC Press 2009.

Iscan Y. M., Kennedy R. A. K., Reconstruction of life from the skeleton, Alan R. Liss 1989.

Katzenberg A. M., Saunders R. S., Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, Wiley-Liss 2008.

Kozłowski T., Stan biologiczny i warunki życia ludności in Culmine na Pomorzu Nadwiślańskim (X–XIII wiek). Studium antropologiczne, Mons Sancti Laurenti, vol. 7, Toruń 2012.

Lewis E. M., The Bioarchaeology of Childeren. Perspectives from Biological and Forensic Anthropology, Cambridge 2006.

Makowiecki D., Wczesnośredniowieczna gospodarka zwierzętami i socjotopografia in Culmine na Pomorzu Nadwiślańskim. Studium archeozoologiczne, Mons Sancti Laurenti, vol. 6, Toruń 2010.

Mays S., The Archaeology of Human Bones, Routledge 1998.

Waith D. T., Folkens P. A., The Human Bones. Manual, Burlington 2005.

Waldron T., Counting the Dead. The Epidemiology of Skeletal Populations, Chichester 1994.

Waldron T., Paleopathology, Cambridge 2009.

Metody i kryteria oceniania:

Assessment methods:

– activity;

– essay.

Assessment criteria:

– involved in discussions during the conversation and short essay at the end of classes on given topics: 10 pts; fail (2) – 0–10 pts (0–50%); satisfactory (3) – 11–13 pts (51–65%); satisfactory plus (3,5) – 14 pts (66–70%); good (4) – 15–17 pts (71–85%); good plus (4,5) – 18 pts (86–90%); very good (5) – 19–20 pts (91–100%).

Praktyki zawodowe:

Not applicable

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2021/22" (zakończony)

Okres: 2022-02-21 - 2022-09-30
Wybrany podział planu:
Przejdź do planu
Typ zajęć:
Konwersatorium, 30 godzin, 12 miejsc więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Tomasz Kozłowski
Prowadzący grup: Tomasz Kozłowski
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Pełny opis:

List of topics

1. Anthropology, bioarchaeology and osteology – data, methods and interpretations in archaeological sciences.

2. Human and animals bones – part I (chemical nature of bone tissue, bone histology and kind of bones).

3. Human and animals bones – part II (anatomy and morphology of bones and skeleton).

4. Human and animals bones – part III (human and animal dentition, kind of teeth and teeth morphology).

5. Development of bones and infant skeleton.

6. Postdepositional environment and it influences on bone condition. Introduction to taphonomy.

7. Basic characters of bones and individuals in bioarchaeology – abc ‘reading’ from the bones.

8. Human ontogeny and development in the past time and the markers of environmental stress. Introduction to paleoauxology.

9. The history of diseases reconstructed on the basis of bones and archaeological and historical data.

10. History of nonspecific and specific infection disease.

11. Injuries and trauma of the skeleton. Reconstruction of physical activity and interpersonal violence.

12. Cultural modification of bones and medical treatment in past time.

13. Counting the dead: paleodemography and paleoepidemiology. Population level analysis.

14. Reconstruction of human diet on the basis of bones –archaeozoology (animal bones) and analysis of bone isotopes.

15. Chemical and molecular analysis of bone – reading history of origin of people and animals populations and migrations.

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2022/23" (zakończony)

Okres: 2023-02-20 - 2023-09-30
Wybrany podział planu:
Przejdź do planu
Typ zajęć:
Konwersatorium, 30 godzin, 12 miejsc więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Tomasz Kozłowski
Prowadzący grup: Tomasz Kozłowski
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2023/24" (w trakcie)

Okres: 2024-02-20 - 2024-09-30
Wybrany podział planu:
Przejdź do planu
Typ zajęć:
Seminarium przedmiotowe, 30 godzin, 12 miejsc więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Tomasz Kozłowski
Prowadzący grup: Tomasz Kozłowski
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Seminarium przedmiotowe - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Opisy przedmiotów w USOS i USOSweb są chronione prawem autorskim.
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu.
ul. Jurija Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń tel: +48 56 611-40-10 https://usosweb.umk.pl/ kontakt deklaracja dostępności USOSweb (2023-11-21)