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Language in communication: How it works

Informacje ogólne

Kod przedmiotu: 2500-OG-EN-LCHW Kod Erasmus / ISCED: (brak danych) / (0231) Języki obce
Nazwa przedmiotu: Language in communication: How it works
Jednostka: Wydział Humanistyczny
Grupy:
Punkty ECTS i inne: 4.00 (zmienne w czasie)
zobacz reguły punktacji
Język prowadzenia: angielski
Wymagania wstępne:

(tylko po angielsku) none

Rodzaj przedmiotu:

przedmiot fakultatywny

Całkowity nakład pracy studenta:

(tylko po angielsku) Contact hours with teacher:

- participation in discussion seminar- 20 hrs

- consultations- 10 hrs


Self-study hours:

- preparation for discussion seminar- 20 hrs

- writing essays/ papers/ projects- 0 hrs

- reading literature- 25 hrs

- preparation for test- 25 hrs

- preparation for examination- 0 hrs


Altogether: 100 hrs (4 ECTS)


Efekty uczenia się - wiedza:

(tylko po angielsku) Student:

K_W01: is acquainted with basic linguistic terminology and can make use of it;

K_W10: knows the model of interpersonal communication;

K_W11: can tell the difference between openly persuasive utterances and utterances aiming at misleading the addressee as to their real purpose;



Efekty uczenia się - umiejętności:

(tylko po angielsku) Student:

K_U03: explains basic linguistic notions and applies them to linguistic analysis;

K_U10: recognizes the speaker's communicative intentions;

K_U09: identifies the factors that make communication difficult (i.e. communication barriers) and can neutralize them;

K_U10: can analyze functions of an utterance as the speaker and the hearer;

K_U10: makes use of strategies protecting him / her from unethical communicative behaviour of the interlocutor;

K_U11: can produce utterances in accordance with his / her communicative purpose, as well as with the rules of politeness and the relation between interlocutors;


Efekty uczenia się - kompetencje społeczne:

(tylko po angielsku) Student:

K_K02: understands mechanisms of cultural and communicative transformations and perceives a language as their mirror

K_K06: understands social meaning of the studied subject

K_K13: can effectively communicate with others, in oral and written form.


Metody dydaktyczne:

(tylko po angielsku) Expository teaching methods:

- informative lecture

- conversational lecture

- case study

- presentation


Metody dydaktyczne podające:

- pogadanka
- wykład konwersatoryjny
- wykład problemowy

Metody dydaktyczne poszukujące:

- seminaryjna

Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The lecture is dedicated to those who would like to get some basic knowledge of the most important instrument they use in everyday interpersonal interactions, i.e. language – both in its theoretical, and practical aspect (how this "machinery" works in particular communicative situations). Some more advanced subjects will be introduced, too, referring to pragmatic interpretation of utterances and psychology of communication. Thus it may also be of interest to students who have already made their first steps in linguistics. It consists of 2 parts: the first is planned as a general introduction to linguistics; the second addresses some problems of linguistic pragmatics, such as mechanisms of interpreting indirect speech acts, or the reasons why people communicate in an implicit way and apply politeness strategies in their linguistic behaviour. Also, some selected problems of psychology of communication will be discussed, both from the speaker’s and from the addressee’s perspective.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

1. What makes our language competence. Language signs among other types of signs. Language system and language unit. Identity and opposition as key notions of language. Natural and conventional signs; single-class vs. double-class signs. “Productivity” of language.

2. Subsystems of language: phonological, word-formative, inflectional, syntactical and lexical. Phonetic <> content level of utterance (text  sense). Definability of concepts. “Lingua mentalis” – primary and universal units of language.

3. Speech act structure. The Speaker presenting him/herself in a speech act. Symptomaticity and conventionality of body language.

4. Stylistic differentiation of language – criteria: territorial identity of the Speaker and the hearer / social identity – social distance between the interlocutors – oral / written form of utterance – communicative situation – communicative goal. Communicative roles. Functional styles of language and speech genres. The principle of communicative adequacy (decorum).

5. Language functions according to K. Bühler and R. Jakobson. Relation between higher language functions as defined by K. Popper and evolution of consciousness. Human language vs animal languages. Language classifying the world around us.

6. Locutional, illocutional, and perlocutional aspects of speech act. Explicit and implicit communication: direct / indirect speech acts <> overt / latent (manipulative). Why do people communicate in an implicit way? Understanding the Speaker’s intentions: data taken into account by the Addressee; linguistic competence vs communicative competence.

7. The principle of communicative cooperation: conversational logic by Paul Grice. Interpreting implicit content in Gricean model and in Relevance Theory. The problem of irony and lie.

8. “Politeness” as a principle of conversational cooperation. “Politeness strategies” (G. N. Leech, P. Brown & S. Levinson, M. Marcjanik). Principles of politeness in the light of E. Goffmann’s idea of “social face”.

9. Explicit and implicit communication in a psychological model of communication – the “square” of Schulz von Thun. Four aspects of communication: facts, appeal (to the Addressee), relation (between the Speaker and the Addressee), self-disclosure (of the Speaker). Identifying and correcting communicative dysfunctions.

10. “Giraffe language” and “jackal language” – R. M. Rosenberg’s idea of non-violent communication (NVC).

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

1. Austin J. L.: How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: OUP 1986. Chpt. VII & XII [Locution, illocution, perlocution. Illocutional forces.] }

2. Berne E.: Games People Play. The Psychology of Human Relationships. NY: Grove Press 1964. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+scan+select+3+0}

3. Goffman E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-Face Behavior. London: Penguin Books.

4. Grice P.: Logic and conversation, [in:] P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics vol. 3. NY: Academic Press 1975, 41-58. {http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf}

5. Leech G.: Principles of Pragmatics. London, NY: Longman 1989.

6. Lyons J.: Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997. {https://pl.scribd.com/doc/124738417/John-Lyons-Language-and-Linguistics-an-Introduction}

7. McCabe A.: An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies. London, Oakville: Equinox 2011. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+scan+select+1+1}

8. Rosenberg M. B.: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Encinitas, Ca.: Puddledancer Press 2003.

9. Saussure F. de: Course in General Linguistics. London: Bloomsbury Academic 2013.

10. Searle J.: Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: CUP 2009. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500460103993772+1+search+select++2+10}

11. Wierzbicka A.: Cross-cultural Pragmatics: the Semantics of Human Interaction . Berlin, NY: Moutonde Gruyter 2003. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+10}

12. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford: OUP 1996. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+16}

13. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics, culture, and cognition : universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: OUP 1992. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+18}

Metody i kryteria oceniania: (tylko po angielsku)

Assessment methods:

- final test

- activity

Assessment criteria:

- active participation (min. 70%) (K_K06, K_U10, K_U09, K_K13);

- passing a final test (K_W01, K_W10, K_W11, K_U03, K_U10) .

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2017/18" (zakończony)

Okres: 2018-02-26 - 2018-09-30
Wybrany podział planu:


powiększ
zobacz plan zajęć
Typ zajęć: Konwersatorium, 20 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Prowadzący grup: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The lecture consists of 3 parts: the first one is a general introduction to linguistics; here some basic linguistic notions are presented, such as: linguistic item, predicate, system, subsystems of language, speech act etc. With reference to a structuralist tradition, the lecture gives an overall idea of natural language functioning, thus building basic language consciousness among the students. The second part refers to pragmatic issues in linguistics and is devoted to mechanisms of interpreting indirect speech acts, to other pragmatic communicative rules such as “politeness strategies”, and also to some selected problems of psychology of communication. The third part discusses contemporarily burning issues of ethical usage of language, especially in the context of public interactions: it focuses on persuasive communication and, from ethical perspective, it presents in details some mechanisms of persuasion and manipulation.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

1. What makes our language competence? Langue-parole. Productivity and double articulation of language. Language signs among other types of signs; natural and conventional signs. Language as a 'primary semiotic system' vs secondary systems. Sign-type vs sign-token. 'Semiotic triangle'. Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of sign. Vocal-auditory channel and subcodes of language.

2. Speech act structure. Linguistic signs: indexes and predicates. Predicate-argument structure and valence of predicates. Semantic roles. Descriptions. Identification of linguistic units: proportional structures; substitution test. Identity and opposition as key notions of language.

3. Defining expressions. Linguistic primes and universals. Lingua mentalis by Anna Wierzbicka. Different languages - different conceptual structures. Language universalism vs language relativism. Sapir - Whorf hypothesis.

4. Syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations in language. Types of paradigmatic relations: equivalence, hyponymy, exclusion, independence. Lexical fields. Oppositions within a system. Synchronical vs diachronical perspective. Subsystems of language: phonological, morphological (inflectional, word-formative), syntactical. Thematic-rhematic structure of sentences; presupposition effect.

5. Recapitulation: design features of natural human language. K. Popper's '3rd world' and evolution of consciousness. Human language vs animal languages.

6. Karl Bühler's speech act structure. Pragmatic conditions of communication. Speaker presenting himself in a speech act; symptomaticity and conventionality of “body language”. Communicative roles. Principle of communicative adequacy (decorum). Stylistic variation of language - criteria. Speech genres. Speech functions (Bühler, Jacobson). K. Popper's higher language functions.

7. What we do while speaking - speech acts by J. Austin and J. Searle. Locution - illocution - perlocution. Direct - indirect speech acts; overt - latent (manipulative). Why people communicate in an implicit way. Understanding speaker’s intentions: data taken into account by the receiver. Explicature vs implicature. Linguistic vs communicative competence. "Pragmatic guidelines" in inferential processes > pragmatic theories; Relevance Theory of D. Sperber and D. Wilson - basic assumptions.

8. Principle of Communicative Cooperation: “conversational logic” by Paul Grice. Unintentional vs intentional violation of maxims (due to clash -- lack of cooperation -- blatant flouting). Interpreting implicit content in Gricean model. The problem of irony and lie.

9. “Politeness” as a principle of conversational cooperation. “Politeness strategies” (G. N. Leech, P. Brown & S. Levinson, M. Marcjanik). Principles of politeness in the light of E. Goffmann’s idea of “social face”.

10. Explicit and implicit communication in a psychological model of communication – the “square” of Schulz von Thun; identifying and treating dysfunctions in communication. Communication as a compromise between effective expressing of one’s views and feelings and effective appealing to the hearer.

11. “Giraffe language” and “jackal language” – R. M. Rosenberg’s idea of nonviolent communication (NVC).

12. Persuasive speech acts. The art of persuading (rhetoric – eristic) <> persuasion and manipulation. Arguments: logical, factual, ex concessis, ab exemplo. Deduction <> induction. Correct argumentation (following facts and logical rules) <> incorrect argumentation: overgeneralization, fallacious reasoning, confounded cause-effect relation, lack of clarity, vicious circle and others. Supporting logical and matter-of-fact argumentation: parallel argumentation (vs sequential), exemplifying, arguments from authority. Fair <> unfair persuasive techniques.

13. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of unfair argumentative techniques: arguments ad populum, appealing to emotions, arguments ad personam, false premises, distracting attention (red herring), straw man method and others.

14. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication − psychological techniques: “psychologically naïve” persuasion methods (imposing pressure, blackmailing, lying; how to protect oneself from pressure and blackmail) -- “psychologically advanced” manipulative methods: mechanism of reciprocity and the rule of “big request”, mechanism of consequence and the rule of “small request”, conformity, solidarity, reliability, authority, reduced availability, contrast, relax and others. Appealing to the hearer’s psychological “metaprogrammes” in persuasion.

15. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of linguistic means of manipulation. Presupposition effect. Psychological and linguistic manipulative techniques in “neurolinguistic programming”.

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

RECOMMENDED READING (CHOICE OF)

1. Austin J. L.: How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: OUP 1986. Chpt. VII & XII [Locution, illocution, perlocution. Illocutional forces.]

2. Berne E.: Games People Play. The Psychology of Human Relationships. NY: Grove Press 1964. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+scan+select+3+0}

3. Cialdini R. B.: Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion. NY: Harper Business 2006. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+search+select++2+1}

4. Goffman E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-Face Behavior. London: Penguin Books.

5. Grice P.: Logic and conversation, [in:] P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics vol. 3. NY: Academic Press 1975, 41-58. {http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf}

6. Leary M.: Self-presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. NY: Avalon Publishing 1996.

7. Leech G.: Principles of Pragmatics. London, NY: Longman 1989.

8. Lyons J.: Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997. {https://pl.scribd.com/doc/124738417/John-Lyons-Language-and-Linguistics-an-Introduction}

9. McCabe A.: An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies. London, Oakville: Equinox 2011. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+scan+select+1+1}

10. Perelman C.: The realm of rhetoric. Transl. W. Kluback. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 1982.

11. Rosenberg M. B.: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Encinitas, Ca.: Puddledancer Press 2003.

12. Saussure de, F.: Course in General Linguistics. [Introduction; Chpt III: The Object of Study; Chpt IV: Linguistics of Language Structure and Linguistics of Speech; Part I Chpt I: Nature of the Linguistic Sign; Part I Chpt II: Invariability and Variability of the Sign; Part I Chpt III: Static Linguistics and Evolutionary Linguistics, § 1-4; Part II Chpt. III: Identities, Realities, Values; Part II Chpt IV: Linguistic Value.] Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court 1986.

13. Schulz von Thun F.: Sztuka rozmawiania, t. 1 Analiza zaburzeń. Cracow: Wyd. WAM 2007 / Miteinander reden 1 – Störungen und Klärungen. Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981. (no English translation)

14. Searle J.: Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: CUP 2009. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500460103993772+1+search+select++2+10}

15. Sperber D., D. Wilson: Relevance. Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1995.

16. Wierzbicka, A.: Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 25-66.

17. Wierzbicka A.: Speech acts and speech genres across languages and cultures, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 149-196.

{http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+10}

18. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics, culture, and cognition : universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: OUP 1992. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+18}

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr zimowy 2018/19" (zakończony)

Okres: 2018-10-01 - 2019-02-24
Wybrany podział planu:


powiększ
zobacz plan zajęć
Typ zajęć: Konwersatorium, 20 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Prowadzący grup: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The lecture consists of 3 parts: the first one is a general introduction to linguistics; here some basic linguistic notions are presented, such as: linguistic item, predicate, system, subsystems of language, speech act etc. With reference to a structuralist tradition, the lecture gives an overall idea of natural language functioning, thus building basic language consciousness among the students. The second part refers to pragmatic issues in linguistics and is devoted to mechanisms of interpreting indirect speech acts, to other pragmatic communicative rules such as “politeness strategies”, and also to some selected problems of psychology of communication. The third part discusses contemporarily burning issues of ethical usage of language, especially in the context of public interactions: it focuses on persuasive communication and, from ethical perspective, it presents in details some mechanisms of persuasion and manipulation.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

1. What makes our language competence? Langue-parole. Productivity and double articulation of language. Language signs among other types of signs; natural and conventional signs. Language as a 'primary semiotic system' vs secondary systems. Sign-type vs sign-token. 'Semiotic triangle'. Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of sign. Vocal-auditory channel and subcodes of language.

2. Speech act structure. Linguistic signs: indexes and predicates. Predicate-argument structure and valence of predicates. Semantic roles. Descriptions. Identification of linguistic units: proportional structures; substitution test. Identity and opposition as key notions of language.

3. Defining expressions. Linguistic primes and universals. Lingua mentalis by Anna Wierzbicka. Different languages - different conceptual structures. Language universalism vs language relativism. Sapir - Whorf hypothesis.

4. Syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations in language. Types of paradigmatic relations: equivalence, hyponymy, exclusion, independence. Lexical fields. Oppositions within a system. Synchronical vs diachronical perspective. Subsystems of language: phonological, morphological (inflectional, word-formative), syntactical. Thematic-rhematic structure of sentences; presupposition effect.

5. Recapitulation: design features of natural human language. K. Popper's '3rd world' and evolution of consciousness. Human language vs animal languages.

6. Karl Bühler's speech act structure. Pragmatic conditions of communication. Speaker presenting himself in a speech act; symptomaticity and conventionality of “body language”. Communicative roles. Principle of communicative adequacy (decorum). Stylistic variation of language - criteria. Speech genres. Speech functions (Bühler, Jacobson). K. Popper's higher language functions.

7. What we do while speaking - speech acts by J. Austin and J. Searle. Locution - illocution - perlocution. Direct - indirect speech acts; overt - latent (manipulative). Why people communicate in an implicit way. Understanding speaker’s intentions: data taken into account by the receiver. Explicature vs implicature. Linguistic vs communicative competence. "Pragmatic guidelines" in inferential processes > pragmatic theories; Relevance Theory of D. Sperber and D. Wilson - basic assumptions.

8. Principle of Communicative Cooperation: “conversational logic” by Paul Grice. Unintentional vs intentional violation of maxims (due to clash -- lack of cooperation -- blatant flouting). Interpreting implicit content in Gricean model. The problem of irony and lie.

9. “Politeness” as a principle of conversational cooperation. “Politeness strategies” (G. N. Leech, P. Brown & S. Levinson, M. Marcjanik). Principles of politeness in the light of E. Goffmann’s idea of “social face”.

10. Explicit and implicit communication in a psychological model of communication – the “square” of Schulz von Thun; identifying and treating dysfunctions in communication. Communication as a compromise between effective expressing of one’s views and feelings and effective appealing to the hearer.

11. “Giraffe language” and “jackal language” – R. M. Rosenberg’s idea of nonviolent communication (NVC).

12. Persuasive speech acts. The art of persuading (rhetoric – eristic) <> persuasion and manipulation. Arguments: logical, factual, ex concessis, ab exemplo. Deduction <> induction. Correct argumentation (following facts and logical rules) <> incorrect argumentation: overgeneralization, fallacious reasoning, confounded cause-effect relation, lack of clarity, vicious circle and others. Supporting logical and matter-of-fact argumentation: parallel argumentation (vs sequential), exemplifying, arguments from authority. Fair <> unfair persuasive techniques.

13. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of unfair argumentative techniques: arguments ad populum, appealing to emotions, arguments ad personam, false premises, distracting attention (red herring), straw man method and others.

14. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication − psychological techniques: “psychologically naïve” persuasion methods (imposing pressure, blackmailing, lying; how to protect oneself from pressure and blackmail) -- “psychologically advanced” manipulative methods: mechanism of reciprocity and the rule of “big request”, mechanism of consequence and the rule of “small request”, conformity, solidarity, reliability, authority, reduced availability, contrast, relax and others. Appealing to the hearer’s psychological “metaprogrammes” in persuasion.

15. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of linguistic means of manipulation. Presupposition effect. Psychological and linguistic manipulative techniques in “neurolinguistic programming”.

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

RECOMMENDED READING (CHOICE OF)

1. Austin J. L.: How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: OUP 1986. Chpt. VII & XII [Locution, illocution, perlocution. Illocutional forces.]

2. Berne E.: Games People Play. The Psychology of Human Relationships. NY: Grove Press 1964. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+scan+select+3+0}

3. Cialdini R. B.: Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion. NY: Harper Business 2006. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+search+select++2+1}

4. Goffman E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-Face Behavior. London: Penguin Books.

5. Grice P.: Logic and conversation, [in:] P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics vol. 3. NY: Academic Press 1975, 41-58. {http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf}

6. Leary M.: Self-presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. NY: Avalon Publishing 1996.

7. Leech G.: Principles of Pragmatics. London, NY: Longman 1989.

8. Lyons J.: Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997. {https://pl.scribd.com/doc/124738417/John-Lyons-Language-and-Linguistics-an-Introduction}

9. McCabe A.: An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies. London, Oakville: Equinox 2011. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+scan+select+1+1}

10. Perelman C.: The realm of rhetoric. Transl. W. Kluback. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 1982.

11. Rosenberg M. B.: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Encinitas, Ca.: Puddledancer Press 2003.

12. Saussure de, F.: Course in General Linguistics. [Introduction; Chpt III: The Object of Study; Chpt IV: Linguistics of Language Structure and Linguistics of Speech; Part I Chpt I: Nature of the Linguistic Sign; Part I Chpt II: Invariability and Variability of the Sign; Part I Chpt III: Static Linguistics and Evolutionary Linguistics, § 1-4; Part II Chpt. III: Identities, Realities, Values; Part II Chpt IV: Linguistic Value.] Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court 1986.

13. Schulz von Thun F.: Sztuka rozmawiania, t. 1 Analiza zaburzeń. Cracow: Wyd. WAM 2007 / Miteinander reden 1 – Störungen und Klärungen. Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981. (no English translation)

14. Searle J.: Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: CUP 2009. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500460103993772+1+search+select++2+10}

15. Sperber D., D. Wilson: Relevance. Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1995.

16. Wierzbicka, A.: Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 25-66.

17. Wierzbicka A.: Speech acts and speech genres across languages and cultures, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 149-196.

{http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+10}

18. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics, culture, and cognition : universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: OUP 1992. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+18}

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr zimowy 2019/20" (zakończony)

Okres: 2019-10-01 - 2020-02-28
Wybrany podział planu:


powiększ
zobacz plan zajęć
Typ zajęć: Konwersatorium, 20 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Prowadzący grup: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The lecture consists of 3 parts: the first one is a general introduction to linguistics; here some basic linguistic notions are presented, such as: linguistic item, predicate, system, subsystems of language, speech act etc. With reference to a structuralist tradition, the lecture gives an overall idea of natural language functioning, thus building basic language consciousness among the students. The second part refers to pragmatic issues in linguistics and is devoted to mechanisms of interpreting indirect speech acts, to other pragmatic communicative rules such as “politeness strategies”, and also to some selected problems of psychology of communication. The third part discusses contemporarily burning issues of ethical usage of language, especially in the context of public interactions: it focuses on persuasive communication and, from ethical perspective, it presents in details some mechanisms of persuasion and manipulation.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

1. What makes our language competence? Langue-parole. Productivity and double articulation of language. Language signs among other types of signs; natural and conventional signs. Language as a 'primary semiotic system' vs secondary systems. Sign-type vs sign-token. 'Semiotic triangle'. Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of sign. Vocal-auditory channel and subcodes of language.

2. Speech act structure. Linguistic signs: indexes and predicates. Predicate-argument structure and valence of predicates. Semantic roles. Descriptions. Identification of linguistic units: proportional structures; substitution test. Identity and opposition as key notions of language.

3. Defining expressions. Linguistic primes and universals. Lingua mentalis by Anna Wierzbicka. Different languages - different conceptual structures. Language universalism vs language relativism. Sapir - Whorf hypothesis.

4. Syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations in language. Types of paradigmatic relations: equivalence, hyponymy, exclusion, independence. Lexical fields. Oppositions within a system. Synchronical vs diachronical perspective. Subsystems of language: phonological, morphological (inflectional, word-formative), syntactical. Thematic-rhematic structure of sentences; presupposition effect.

5. Recapitulation: design features of natural human language. K. Popper's '3rd world' and evolution of consciousness. Human language vs animal languages.

6. Karl Bühler's speech act structure. Pragmatic conditions of communication. Speaker presenting himself in a speech act; symptomaticity and conventionality of “body language”. Communicative roles. Principle of communicative adequacy (decorum). Stylistic variation of language - criteria. Speech genres. Speech functions (Bühler, Jacobson). K. Popper's higher language functions.

7. What we do while speaking - speech acts by J. Austin and J. Searle. Locution - illocution - perlocution. Direct - indirect speech acts; overt - latent (manipulative). Why people communicate in an implicit way. Understanding speaker’s intentions: data taken into account by the receiver. Explicature vs implicature. Linguistic vs communicative competence. "Pragmatic guidelines" in inferential processes > pragmatic theories; Relevance Theory of D. Sperber and D. Wilson - basic assumptions.

8. Principle of Communicative Cooperation: “conversational logic” by Paul Grice. Unintentional vs intentional violation of maxims (due to clash -- lack of cooperation -- blatant flouting). Interpreting implicit content in Gricean model. The problem of irony and lie.

9. “Politeness” as a principle of conversational cooperation. “Politeness strategies” (G. N. Leech, P. Brown & S. Levinson, M. Marcjanik). Principles of politeness in the light of E. Goffmann’s idea of “social face”.

10. Explicit and implicit communication in a psychological model of communication – the “square” of Schulz von Thun; identifying and treating dysfunctions in communication. Communication as a compromise between effective expressing of one’s views and feelings and effective appealing to the hearer.

11. “Giraffe language” and “jackal language” – R. M. Rosenberg’s idea of nonviolent communication (NVC).

12. Persuasive speech acts. The art of persuading (rhetoric – eristic) <> persuasion and manipulation. Arguments: logical, factual, ex concessis, ab exemplo. Deduction <> induction. Correct argumentation (following facts and logical rules) <> incorrect argumentation: overgeneralization, fallacious reasoning, confounded cause-effect relation, lack of clarity, vicious circle and others. Supporting logical and matter-of-fact argumentation: parallel argumentation (vs sequential), exemplifying, arguments from authority. Fair <> unfair persuasive techniques.

13. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of unfair argumentative techniques: arguments ad populum, appealing to emotions, arguments ad personam, false premises, distracting attention (red herring), straw man method and others.

14. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication − psychological techniques: “psychologically naïve” persuasion methods (imposing pressure, blackmailing, lying; how to protect oneself from pressure and blackmail) -- “psychologically advanced” manipulative methods: mechanism of reciprocity and the rule of “big request”, mechanism of consequence and the rule of “small request”, conformity, solidarity, reliability, authority, reduced availability, contrast, relax and others. Appealing to the hearer’s psychological “metaprogrammes” in persuasion.

15. Violating principles of ethical usage of language in persuasive communication -- a panoramic view of linguistic means of manipulation. Presupposition effect. Psychological and linguistic manipulative techniques in “neurolinguistic programming”.

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

RECOMMENDED READING (CHOICE OF)

1. Austin J. L.: How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: OUP 1986. Chpt. VII & XII [Locution, illocution, perlocution. Illocutional forces.]

2. Berne E.: Games People Play. The Psychology of Human Relationships. NY: Grove Press 1964. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+scan+select+3+0}

3. Cialdini R. B.: Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion. NY: Harper Business 2006. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+search+select++2+1}

4. Goffman E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-Face Behavior. London: Penguin Books.

5. Grice P.: Logic and conversation, [in:] P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics vol. 3. NY: Academic Press 1975, 41-58. {http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf}

6. Leary M.: Self-presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. NY: Avalon Publishing 1996.

7. Leech G.: Principles of Pragmatics. London, NY: Longman 1989.

8. Lyons J.: Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997. {https://pl.scribd.com/doc/124738417/John-Lyons-Language-and-Linguistics-an-Introduction}

9. McCabe A.: An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies. London, Oakville: Equinox 2011. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+scan+select+1+1}

10. Perelman C.: The realm of rhetoric. Transl. W. Kluback. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 1982.

11. Rosenberg M. B.: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Encinitas, Ca.: Puddledancer Press 2003.

12. Saussure de, F.: Course in General Linguistics. [Introduction; Chpt III: The Object of Study; Chpt IV: Linguistics of Language Structure and Linguistics of Speech; Part I Chpt I: Nature of the Linguistic Sign; Part I Chpt II: Invariability and Variability of the Sign; Part I Chpt III: Static Linguistics and Evolutionary Linguistics, § 1-4; Part II Chpt. III: Identities, Realities, Values; Part II Chpt IV: Linguistic Value.] Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court 1986.

13. Schulz von Thun F.: Sztuka rozmawiania, t. 1 Analiza zaburzeń. Cracow: Wyd. WAM 2007 / Miteinander reden 1 – Störungen und Klärungen. Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981. (no English translation)

14. Searle J.: Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: CUP 2009. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500460103993772+1+search+select++2+10}

15. Sperber D., D. Wilson: Relevance. Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1995.

16. Wierzbicka, A.: Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 25-66.

17. Wierzbicka A.: Speech acts and speech genres across languages and cultures, in: idem, Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin-NY, Mouton de Gruyter 1991, p. 149-196.

{http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+10}

18. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics, culture, and cognition : universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: OUP 1992. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+18}

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr zimowy 2020/21" (zakończony)

Okres: 2020-10-01 - 2021-02-21
Wybrany podział planu:


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Typ zajęć: Konwersatorium, 20 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Prowadzący grup: Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Konwersatorium - Zaliczenie na ocenę
Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The lecture is dedicated to those who would like to get some basic knowledge of the most important instrument they use in everyday interpersonal interactions, i.e. language – both in its theoretical, and practical aspect (how this "machinery" works in particular communicative situations). Some more advanced subjects will be introduced, too, referring to pragmatic interpretation of utterances and psychology of communication. Thus it may also be of interest to students who have already made their first steps in linguistics. It consists of 2 parts: the first is planned as a general introduction to linguistics; the second addresses some problems of linguistic pragmatics, such as mechanisms of interpreting indirect speech acts, or the reasons why people communicate in an implicit way and apply politeness strategies in their linguistic behaviour. Also, some selected problems of psychology of communication will be discussed, both from the speaker’s and from the addressee’s perspective.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

1. What makes our language competence. Language signs among other types of signs. Language system and language unit. Identity and opposition as key notions of language. Natural and conventional signs; single-class vs. double-class signs. “Productivity” of language.

2. Subsystems of language: phonological, word-formative, inflectional, syntactical and lexical. Phonetic <> content level of utterance (text  sense). Definability of concepts. “Lingua mentalis” – primary and universal units of language.

3. Speech act structure. The Speaker presenting him/herself in a speech act. Symptomaticity and conventionality of body language.

4. Stylistic differentiation of language – criteria: territorial identity of the Speaker and the hearer / social identity – social distance between the interlocutors – oral / written form of utterance – communicative situation – communicative goal. Communicative roles. Functional styles of language and speech genres. The principle of communicative adequacy (decorum).

5. Language functions according to K. Bühler and R. Jakobson. Relation between higher language functions as defined by K. Popper and evolution of consciousness. Human language vs animal languages. Language classifying the world around us.

6. Locutional, illocutional, and perlocutional aspects of speech act. Explicit and implicit communication: direct / indirect speech acts <> overt / latent (manipulative). Why do people communicate in an implicit way? Understanding the Speaker’s intentions: data taken into account by the Addressee; linguistic competence vs communicative competence.

7. The principle of communicative cooperation: conversational logic by Paul Grice. Interpreting implicit content in Gricean model and in Relevance Theory. The problem of irony and lie.

8. “Politeness” as a principle of conversational cooperation. “Politeness strategies” (G. N. Leech, P. Brown & S. Levinson, M. Marcjanik). Principles of politeness in the light of E. Goffmann’s idea of “social face”.

9. Explicit and implicit communication in a psychological model of communication – the “square” of Schulz von Thun. Four aspects of communication: facts, appeal (to the Addressee), relation (between the Speaker and the Addressee), self-disclosure (of the Speaker). Identifying and correcting communicative dysfunctions.

10. “Giraffe language” and “jackal language” – R. M. Rosenberg’s idea of non-violent communication (NVC).

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

1. Austin J. L.: How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: OUP 1986. Chpt. VII & XII [Locution, illocution, perlocution. Illocutional forces.] }

2. Berne E.: Games People Play. The Psychology of Human Relationships. NY: Grove Press 1964. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500013005024300+1+scan+select+3+0}

3. Goffman E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-Face Behavior. London: Penguin Books.

4. Grice P.: Logic and conversation, [in:] P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics vol. 3. NY: Academic Press 1975, 41-58. {http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/studypacks/Grice-Logic.pdf}

5. Leech G.: Principles of Pragmatics. London, NY: Longman 1989.

6. Lyons J.: Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997. {https://pl.scribd.com/doc/124738417/John-Lyons-Language-and-Linguistics-an-Introduction}

7. McCabe A.: An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies. London, Oakville: Equinox 2011. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+scan+select+1+1}

8. Rosenberg M. B.: Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Encinitas, Ca.: Puddledancer Press 2003.

9. Saussure F. de: Course in General Linguistics. London: Bloomsbury Academic 2013.

10. Searle J.: Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: CUP 2009. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082500460103993772+1+search+select++2+10}

11. Wierzbicka A.: Cross-cultural Pragmatics: the Semantics of Human Interaction . Berlin, NY: Moutonde Gruyter 2003. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+10}

12. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford: OUP 1996. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+16}

13. Wierzbicka A.: Semantics, culture, and cognition : universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: OUP 1992. {http://opac.bu.umk.pl/webpac-bin/B_horizonPL/wgbroker.exe?2017082421135301183856+1+search+select++18+18}

Uwagi: (tylko po angielsku)

Lecture online via BigBlueButton, at the appointed time (Mon 9.45):

https://vc.umk.pl/b/iza-gk9-hp9

Presentations for lectures at Teams:

https://teams.microsoft.com/l/team/19%3ae262e4c29b7b40beab65c6fdc50d0362%40thread.tacv2/conversations?groupId=e90e7692-2c61-4cb1-9a3d-aeee27dc8524&tenantId=e80a627f-ef94-4aa9-82d6-c7ec9cfca324

Codes will be sent by USOS-mail.

Consultations: individually by USOS-mail; if needed, meeting at BigBlueButton

How to get a credit: a final test at Teams

Opisy przedmiotów w USOS i USOSweb są chronione prawem autorskim.
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu.